Technology of WARP-5

In order to realise its challenging objectives for next-generation metro-access networks, WARP-5 is based on the following key technologies.

  • Coherent Ultra-Dense WDM
    Coherent detection as widely adapted in core networks can provide many advantages to access networks: first of all, a fine granularity can be provided for the WDM grid through flexible filtering in the electrical domain, resulting in a respectable high number of virtual point-to-point links in a fully passive ultra-dense WDM architecture. At the same time, a high spectral occupancy optimises the use of available optical bandwidth. Second, the high sensitivity of the coherent detection process enables a high loss budget, which supports a high passive split in the optical distribution network. WARP-5 will take advantage of a high compatible loss budget to establish intra-network communication in a fully passive fibre infrastructure, without bypassing the optical line terminal and thus avoiding conversion of the traffic to the electrical domain and bit-level processing for the purpose of routing. Convergence of wireline and wireless communications will be obtained through an UDWDM-integrated mobile backhaul capable to support cloud radio access networks and dynamic networking capabilities.

  • Fully-Passive ROADM for Flexible Networking
    WARP-5 builds on network nodes that are powered solely through energy harvesting along the fibre infrastructure. The ROADMs located in the metro segment and mobile x-haul add resource reconfiguration capability to the metro-access PON and enable more efficient network operation with lower operational expenditures. Low-cost ROADM technology based on micro-opto-electro mechanics is employed for this purpose. The main aim of WARP-5's ROADMs is to provide dynamic bandwidth/spectrum allocation mechanisms at the physical layer while also enhancing resiliency features in high-density PONs.

  • Unequalised QAM constellations generated by low-cost InP modulators and fully-passive ROADM.

  • Flexible Transceivers for Optical QAM
  • Coherent detection enables the network units to access higher-order modulation formats with high spectral efficiency. WARP-5 will employ low-cost InP modulators to generate optical QAM with up to 16 levels in order to enable a high guaranteed per-user data rate of up to 10 Gb/s. Together with a narrow channel spacing of 5 GHz and the ultra-dense WDM architecture, a massive network capacity beyond 1 Tb/s can be achieved. Flexible transceivers allow the optimal utilisation of photonic hardware under the umbrella of dynamic and elastic access networks.

  • Extension of PON Loss Budgets though Self-Amplification for Coherent Ultra-Dense WDM
  • Means of optical amplification for coherent ultra-dense WDM will support a loss budget extension over the entire optical transmission band in order to reach compatible loss budgets of 60 dB and more. Self-amplification provides a fully passive solution in view of long-reach, high-split metro-access PONs. Further conventional amplification schemes will be incorporated to maximize the compatible loss budget in the most cost- and energy-efficient way.